Hoof and Mouth vaccination problems

From:"Morken, Tim" <tim9@cdc.gov>

Susan wrote,
WHY haven't all these animals been vaccinated?

From what I have read:
giving the animals vaccines makes it immpossible to tell if a particular
animal was vacinated or exposed to the disease - trade agreements depend on
detection of antibody to determine exposure. The vaccine is only effective
for about six months. The cost may be more than the animal is worth
commercially. The disease spreads extremely fast and it would take longer to
vaccinate all the animals and for the immunity to become effective than it
would for the disease to spread. All these combine to make it unfeasible to
vaccinate in the middle of an epidemic.

It appears to be one of those diseases that is more effectivly controlled by
keeping it out than by treatment.

for a lot more info on current epidemics see:

here are some excerpts;

While FMD vaccine is available, Dr. Logan said it is used only in
emergencies, to create a "disease-free" buffer zone around an infected
area. Because vaccinated animals will test positive, they cannot be shipped
internationally and protocols require the animals to be destroyed as soon
as the disease is eradicated.

FMD, which has not been seen in the U.S. since l929, is caused by a highly
infectious virus that can cause death or disabling blisters and sores in
and around the mouth, muzzle, teats and feet of livestock with cloven or
"split" hooves. Cattle, pigs, sheep, goats and deer are highly susceptible,
and can exhibit clinical disease signs after an incubation period of only 3
to 8 days. To stop the spread of infection, affected or exposed animals
must be slaughtered, then burned or buried. Premises and equipment must be
disinfected to prevent disease spread.

"FMD virus poses special challenges, requiring proper disinfection and
biosecurity protocols. People who have worked around or been near infected
animals can inadvertently carry and spread the virus via their equipment,
cars, clothing, shoes, or even for a short time in their lungs or pharynx
(throat)," said Linda Logan, Texas' state veterinarian and head of the
Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC), the state's livestock health
regulatory agency. She pointed out studies indicate the virus can drift up
to 40 miles on the wind, another hurdle to confining an FMD outbreak to a
defined geographic area. [The virus has been documented as spreading much
farther, almost 300 miles on the wind. - Mod.TG] "FMD is probably the most
economically damaging livestock disease," Dr. Logan said.

The disease is currently affecting 4 of the world's 7 continents: Asia,
Africa, South America and Europe, leaving only North America, Australia,
and Antarctica free of the disease.

"An outbreak costs a country millions of dollars to fight, and thousands of
animals can be lost. Additionally, livestock markets must be closed to
prevent spread of infection, dairies may not be able to operate, and
transportation of livestock must cease. Furthermore, there's the cost of
depopulating and disposing of affected or exposed animals and vaccinating
'clean animals' to create a disease-free 'buffer zone,'" said Dr. Logan, a
specialist in tick-borne and foreign animal diseases. She also serves on a
national team reviewing how best to safeguard U.S. livestock from foreign
diseases and pests.

Tim Morken, BA, EMT(MSA), HTL(ASCP)
Infectious Disease Pathology Activity
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
1600 Clifton Road
Atlanta, GA 30333

PH: 404-639-3964
FAX: 404-639-3043

email: tim9@cdc.gov

-----Original Message-----
From: Susan Owens [mailto:ohenry@dfw.net]
Sent: Tuesday, March 20, 2001 2:06 PM
To: HistoNet Server
Subject: Irish in me/ Hoof and Mouth

Well there's no Irish in me, but I gave my Labs(dogs) new green St.Patrick
toys for the holiday. They were enjoyed by all.

I have a question on this Hoof & Mouth......Since the disease is self
limiting, and since there is a vaccine aganist it, WHY haven't all these
animals been vaccinated?.....Why  destroy hundred of thousands of healthy
animals when vaccinations would have prevented this terrible thing in the
first place.....What are the government and owners thinking???

I don't understand, does anyone have an answer as to why they would choose
to destroy maybe millions of animals rather then vaccinate them so this
wouldn't happen?



Date: 19 Mar 2001 21:20:22 -0600
From: "ryandes@esatclear.ie" <ryandes@esatclear.ie>
Subject: Re: The Irish in me

Hello Connie,
         Yes the St Patricks Day Parades were cancelled in Ireland as a
precautionary measure to prevent the gathering of large crowds of people
just in case Foot & Mouth gets into this country.
           There have been no cases in the Republic of Ireland and only one
case in the North of Ireland and that was a sheep bought in from England.
All sheep that had been brought in from the UK were slaughtered as a
preventative measure. Since there have been no new cases  it is looking
better for this little island as a whole.
         It is a looking like an epidemic in the UK as a result of pigs
being fed swill from an Internartional  airline. It was in the UK  in 1967
but vigilance kept it out of here. Now the defences are up again and there
are checks in place at ports and borders to prevent movement of animals and
disinfection of wheels of vehicles etc.
          The Parade in Dublin is to go ahead at a later date.

Annette Ryan

At 11:52 AM 3/16/01 -0700, you wrote:

>I heard St. Patrick's day celebrations have been canceled in most parts
>of ireland due to the Hoof & Mouth outbreak.   If this is true, I'm so
>sorry to hear this.  I hope to brighten your day by wishing all Irish
>Histonetters a most pleasant and happy day, anyway!
>and to all the rest of you...  Let the party begin!! *G*
>Connie McManus (whose good Irish name comes by way of marriage)

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